Rice Import Policy: Assessing the Income of Farmers from Agriculture in Indonesia


  • Ali Mukti Tanjung Universitas Pembinaan Masyarakat Indonesia, Medan, Indonesia,
  • Didin Muhafidin Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia,


Rice Import, Rice Production, International Trade, Population Growth, Farmers’ Income, Economic Growth.


The amelioration of farmers' well-being constitutes a pivotal concern on a global scale, necessitating the conscientious attention of seasoned regulatory authorities and recent scholarly investigations. This article thus delves into an examination of the ramifications of rice import policies, encompassing facets such as rice importation, domestic rice production, and international trade, with a particular focus on their influence on the income of farmers in Indonesia. To discern patterns and interdependencies, the study incorporates population and economic growth as control variables for predicting farmers' income. Employing secondary data extracted from the World Development Indicators (WDI) and Statista spanning the years 1991-2022, the article adopts the dynamic autoregressive distributed lag (DARDL) approach to scrutinize the relationships among the aforementioned variables. The empirical findings illuminate a negative correlation between rice imports and farmers' income, signifying a potentially adverse impact. Conversely, rice production, international trade, population, and economic growth exhibit positive associations with farmers' income in the Indonesian context. These outcomes furnish valuable insights for regulatory bodies, guiding them in formulating policies geared towards augmenting farmers' income. Such initiatives may encompass the implementation of constraints on rice imports, alongside endeavours to enhance domestic rice production and facilitate international trade.