Judy Harrington, Patrick F. Byrne, Frank B. Peairs, Scott J. Nissen, and Philip Westra
Colorado State University
Peter C. Ellsworth and Al Fournier
University of Arizona
Carol A. Mallory-Smith
Oregon State University
Robert S. Zemetra
University of Idaho
W. Brien Henry
USDA-ARS, Central Great Plains Research Station

We conducted an online survey to assess the potential effects of herbicide-tolerant (HT) and insect-resistant (IR) crops on integrated pest management (IPM) practices in the Western United States For HT crops, participants perceived a decrease in several IPM practices, including crop and herbicide rotations and the combined use of multiple weed control strategies. The most serious potential consequences were considered to be a shift in weed species composition and development of herbicide-resistant weeds. For IR crops, respondents perceived a beneficial reduction in application of both broad-spectrum and selective insecticides. The most significant issues for IR crops were believed to be potential development of target pest resistance and difficulties with management of insect refuges. The survey results support the need for continued emphasis on comprehensive strategies in IPM education programs to prolong the usefulness of HT and IR crops.

Key words: Genetically-engineered crops, herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, integrated pest management, IPM, survey.