Pamela J. Hines

Science controversies can be distinguished from one another on whether the issue of controversy is a matter of ethics, a matter needing further scientific research, or a need to make public policy decisions on the basis of incomplete information. Effective communication about the relevant issues underlying any science controversy can be improved with education about both the facts and the process of empirical science. Improved communication strategies may support the public interest in science, more effectively incorporate the public voice into policy outcomes, and improve the level of trust between the public and the research scientists.

Key words: Genetically modified foods; controversy; education; science communications.