PG Economics Ltd, UK
This study examined the farm level implications of restrictions on glyphosate use. These are likely to be higher weed control costs, poorer levels of weed control, increased incidence of pests, lower yields and loss of benefits associated with no tillage and the adoption of GM HT crops. There is likely to be more use of alternative herbicides and additional use of manual, mechanical, and cultural weed control methods. These changes are expected to increase the annual cost of weed control across the seven countries by between $22/ha and $30/ha. In relation to the environmental impact associated with herbicide use, it is likely to result in a small decrease in the total amount of herbicide active ingredient used across the seven countries (-1% to -11%) although in terms of the associated environmental impact, as measured by the EIQ indicator, the average EIQ load/ha would increase by between 0.4% and 11.6%, highlighting a net poorer environmental outcome.
Key words: Glyphosate, weed control, hand weeding, environmental impact quotient, active ingredient, costs, yield.