Colin A. Carter and Guillaume P. Gruère
Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Davis

The mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) food aims to provide consumer choice. However, in the European Union and elsewhere, GM food with mandatory labeling has disappeared from the retail shelves. Food processors’ economic incentives may explain why mandatory labeling has so far failed to provide consumer choice.

Key words: Biotechnology, consumer choice, food labeling, food regulation.