Mauro Vigani
Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (JRC-IPTS)
Alessandro Olper
University of Milano & LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance

An increasing set of evidence has been reported on how countries set standards on genetically modified food and their subsequent economic effects. Studies typically contain some empirical evidence and some theoretical explanations of the data. However, to date, limited effort has been posed on systematically reviewing the existing evidence and its implications for policy. This article contributes to the literature by bringing together a summary of the most recent published evidence on patterns of GMO regulation and their determinants, as well as their economics implications for trade and firms’ global strategy.

Key words: GMOs, regulation, European Union, GM-free.