Puran Mal, Manjunatha A.V., Siegfried Bauer, and Mirza Nomman Ahmed
Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany

Bt cotton technology has emerged as an advantageous alternative to traditional cotton varieties by inhibiting bollworm attack, thereby improving farm production and income. This study focuses on analyzing the technical efficiency and environmental impact (via insecticide use) of Bt cotton farms compared to non- Bt cotton farms using the stochastic frontier approach and the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ), considering primary data from agriculturally progressive states of India. The results indicate that average technical efficiency is higher in Bt cotton farming. Roughly 80% of Bt cotton farms fall in the efficiency category of 80-95%; this percentage falls to 60% in non-Bt farms. In addition, Bt cotton demonstrates a lower EIQ value than non-Bt cotton, indicating less damage to the environment. The results can provide positive insights to the Indian Government for pushing this efficient technology towards expansion.

Key words: Bt cotton, Environmental Impact Quotient, India, stochastic frontier approach, technical efficiency.